【转载】Superfoods Are a Marketing Ploy

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【转载自流利阅读】

Superfoods Are a Marketing Ploy
超级食物是⼀种营销策略

In their largely unprocessed forms, foods from the earth, trees, or animals are healthful by definition. So why, you might ask, would the producers of foods such as cranberries, pears, avocados, or walnuts fund research aimed at proving that these particular foods—rather than fruits, vegetables, or nuts in general—have special health benefits? Marketing, of course. Every food producer wants to expand sales. Health claims sell.

在⼤部分未经加⼯的形态下,来⾃⼟壤、树⽊或动物的食物从定义上来说是健康的。所以,你 可能会问,为什么蔓越莓、梨、⽜油果或者核桃等食物的⽣产商会去资助研究,旨在证明上述 特定食物——⽽不是所有⽔果、蔬菜或坚果——有特殊的健康益处呢?当然是因为市场营销。每 个食品⽣产商都想扩⼤销售。强调健康效果的产品往往会卖得好。

All of this explains why Royal Hawaiian Macadamia Nut petitioned the FDA in 2015 to allow it to say in advertisements that daily consumption of macadamias—along with eating a healthy diet—may reduce the risk of heart disease. The 81-page petition cited several studies done in humans, one of them funded by the Hershey Company, which sells chocolate-covered macadamias.

这⼀切都解释了为什么夏威夷皇家坚果公司在 2015 年向 FDA(美国⻝⾷食品药品监督管理局)请 愿,要求 FDA 允许它在⼴告中声明,每⽇食⽤夏威夷坚果——再加上健康饮食——可以降低患⼼ 脏病的⻛风险。这份⻓长达 81 ⻚页的请愿书引⽤了⼏项针对⼈类的研究,其中⼀项由好时公司资 助,该公司销售夏威夷果仁巧克⼒。

The FDA ruled that it would permit a qualified health claim for macadamia nuts with this precise wording: “Supportive but not conclusive research shows that eating 1.5 ounces per day of macadamia nuts, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol and not resulting in increased intake of saturated fat or calories may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease.” Can a statement this cumbersome help sell macadamia nuts? Definitely, with a little help from the press: “Go nuts, folks! FDA declares macadamia nuts heart healthy.”

FDA 裁定,它将允许认证的夏威夷坚果的健康声明,但必须使⽤如下措辞:“⽀持性但非结论 性研究表明,作为低饱和脂肪和低胆固醇饮食的⼀部分,每天食⽤ 1.5 盎司的夏威夷坚果,⽽ 且不增加饱和脂肪或卡路⾥的摄入,可能会降低患冠⼼病的⻛风险。”这么冗⻓长的⼀个声明能不 能帮助销售夏威夷坚果?当然,在媒体的⼀些帮助下:“⼩伙伴们!为坚果⽽疯狂吧!FDA 宣 布夏威夷坚果有助于⼼脏健康。”

But what is wrong with promoting the benefits of healthful foods? This kind of research is designed to produce results implying that people who eat this one food will be healthier and can forget about everything else in their diets. Research aimed at marketing raises questions about biases in design and interpretation, may create reputational risks for investigators, and reflects poorly on the integrity of nutrition science.

但是,推⼴健康食品的好处有什么错呢?这种研究的⽬的是为了得出结果,暗⽰食⽤这⼀种食 物的⼈更健康,并且可以忘记饮食中的其他⼀切。针对营销的研究提出了设计和解释中的偏⻅见 问题,可能会给研究者带来声誉⻛风险,并且对营养科学的可信度造成负⾯影响。

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⽂章来源 / ⼤⻄西洋

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